Nag Panchami is observed on Shukla Paksha Panchami in Sawan month. Generally Nag Panchami day occurs two days after Hariyali Teej. According to English calendar, Nag Panchami occurs in July and August. On this day, women devotees worship Nag Devta (Serpent Gods) and offer milk to snakes. They also pray for the well-being of their brothers and family.
Nag Panchami, which is a traditional worship of Serpent Gods, is observed by Hindu devotees throughout India. As per Hindu calendar, there are some auspicious days to worship Serpent Gods. Nag Panchami, observed on Shukla Paksha Panchami in Shravana month is one of those significant days.
It is believed that any Puja offering dedicated to serpents would always reach to the Serpent Gods. Hence people used to worship live snakes on this day, assuming them as Serpent Gods who are worshipped in Hinduism. Although there are several Serpent Gods, twelve of them are more significant and are worshipped during Nag Panchami Puja.
Nag Panchami Mantra:
Sarva Nagaah preeyantam mey yey kechit Prithivithaley,
yey cha helimarichistha yentarey Divi samstithah
Yey Nadeeshu Mahanaga ye Sarasvati gaaminah,
yey cha Vaapee tadagashu teshu sarveshu vai namah
Mantra Translation: – May the serpents that are staying in this world, sky, heaven, sun-rays, lakes, wells, ponds etc., shower their blessings on us and we all salute them.
Nag Panchami Mantra:
Mantra Translation – Ananta, Vasuki, Shesha, Padmanabha, Kambala, Shankhapala, Dhritarashtra, Takshaka and Kaliya are nine Nag Devtas. If the mantra is chanted every day in the morning regularly, it will protect you from all evils and make you victorious in life.
Some devotees observe fast on the previous day of Nag Panchami. The day of fasting before Nag Panchami is known as Nag Chaturthi or Nagul Chavithi. In Andhra Pradesh Nag Chaturthi is observed just after Diwali. In Tamil Nadu, Nag Chaturthi coincides with six days long celebration of Soora Samharam.
In Gujarat, Nag Panchami is celebrated 15 days later than the same in other states. Based on the new moon to new moon lunar calendar followed in Gujarat, Nag Panchami occurs in Krishna Paksha Panchami of Shravana month. In Gujarat, Nag Panchami is popularly known as Nag Pancham and it is usually observed three days before Krishna Janmashtami celebration.
Bola Choth or Bol Choth in Gujarat.
In Gujarat, Bola Choth, also known as Bahula Chauth, is observed one day before Nag Pancham. Cows and other cattle are worshipped on Bola Choth day.