Full moon day in Hindu calendar is known by different name in different regions. It is known as Purnima in North India, Pournami in South India and Poonam in Gujarat. Most of the Purnima days in Hindu calendar coincide with important festivals or Jayanti days and hence are very significant.
It is a traditional practice of many families to observe a full day fast on Purnima days and it is also considered to be auspicious to perform Satya Narayana Puja on Purnima days.
It is also applicable to Phalguna Purnima, which happens to be the last Purnima of the year. The most popular Hindu festival Holi is celebrated on Phalguna Purnima. The day is also observed as Lakshmi Jayanti, the birth anniversary of the Hindu Goddess of wealth and prosperity.
Phalguna Purnima is also popular as Vasanta Purnima, because it coincides with Vasanta Ritu season as per Vedic astronomy. Hindu festivals are not linked with seasons as the festivals and seasons will not coincide because of precession. However, since it takes thousands of years to notice seasonal change of Hindu festivals, alternate names are assigned to the festivals based on the season they currently coincide with.
Phalguna Purnima is celebrated as Kama Dahanam in the South Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Telangana. Even though the rituals of Kama Dahanam and Holika Dahan are the same, the legends associated with them differ. Holi is basically a North Indian festival, but in Tamil Nadu it is celebrated as Kaman Pandigai. Holi is celebrated as Kamuni Panduga in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
Dol Purnima, a festival dedicated to Lord Krishna, is observed during Phalguna Purnima in the states of West Bengal and Orissa. On this day, the idol of Lord Krishna is taken in procession through streets and the devotees play Holi with Lord Krishna.
Phalguna Purnima also happens to be the birth anniversary of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and hence this day is very significant for the people belonging to Gaudiya Vaishnava community.