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Dialectic Spiritualism | VIII Evolutionary Naturalism | Samuel Alexander (1859-1938)

Syamasundara dasa: Alexander is the philosopher of emergent evolution. For him, external objects have an existence independent of consciousness. Unlike many other philosophies, Alexander’s neorealism contends that something may exist even though it is not perceived. Srila Prabhupada: Yes, that is so. God exists whether we perceive Him or not. God is the original creator, […]

Dialectic Spiritualism | VII German Idealism | Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

Syamasundara dasa: In Critique of Pure Reason, Kant asks the fundamental question, “How are a priori synthetic judgments possible?” How can we apprehend the relationship between cause and effect? Where does this facility come from? What is the source of knowledge? He proposes that one knowledge-acquiring process, the transcendental aesthetic, synthesizes sense experience through the […]

Dialectic Spiritualism | VI British Empiricism | David Hume (1711-1776)

Hayagriva dasa: Abstract objects, relations, space, time, and matter are all considered by Hume to be mind-dependent perceptions. For him, perceptions or impressions are all there is. He rejected revealed religion, which he considered dogmatic, and accepted “natural religion” instead, a religion wherein the existence of God can be proved or even shown to be […]

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