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Home / Hinduism Perspective / Hinduism Glossary of Terms – S

Hinduism Glossary of Terms – S

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Sabda =  sound; word.
Sabda-brahma =  Ultimate Reality in the form of thought-vibration in which state thought and word are identical.
Sabda-rasi =  The group of letters from a to ksa
Sadadhva =  The six forms of manifestation-three on the subjective side viz., mantra, varna and pada and three on the objective side, viz.,Kala, tattva and bhuvana
Sadasiva (Sadakhya tattva) =  The third tattva, counting from SIva. At this stage, the I-experience is more prominent than this experience-This tattva is also known as Sadakhya in as much as sat or being is posited at this stage. Ichha or Will is predominant in this tattva.
sAdhaka =  accomplisher, practitioner
sAdhana =  accomplishment, practice
Sadvidya =  Suddha Vidya
Saguna Brahman =  (Lit., Brahman with attributes) The Absolute conceived as the Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer of the universe; corresponds to Isvara, or the Personal God.
Sahaja =  Innate essential nature
Sahaja-vidya =  Knowledge of the innate essential nature; unmana; pure divine consciousness in which mental consciousness ceases, pervasion into Siva-consciousness (Siva-vyapti).
sahasrAra, sahasra dala padma =  thousand patal mystic lotus beyond the six chakras
Sakalar =  Souls of the last order possessing all the three Mala Banthams, and includes, all sentient beings and Devas.
Sakta-japa =  The constant remembrance of the Supreme I-consciousness.
Sakta-samavesa =  Identification with Supreme Consciousness by means of Sakta-upaya
Sakta-upaya (Saktopaya) =  the means of approach to the Divine through Sakti, the ever-recurring contemplation of the pure thought-construct of oneself being essentially Siva or the Supreme I-consciousness.
Sakta-Yoga =  Same as Sakta-upaya, jnana-yoga
Sakti =  (1) The power of Siva to manifest, to maintain the manifestation and to withdraw it (2) The spanda or creative pulsation of Siva or foundational consciousness.
Sakti-cakra =  The group of the twelve mahakalis; the goddesses responsible for creation, etc; the group of Saktis of the senses; group ofmantras; the group of Khecari, etc., the group of the goddess Srsti, etc.
Saktiman =  Mahesvara; Siva
Sakti-pancaka =  The five foundational saktis of Siva, viz., cit, ananda, iccha, jnana, and kriya.
Sakti-prasara =  Sakti-vikasa; emergence from Samadhi and retaining that experience.
Sakti-pata =  Descent of divine Sakti; Divine grace by which the empirical individual turns to and realizes his essential divine nature.
Sakti-sankoca =  withdrawal of attention from sense-activity and turning it towards the inner reality.
Sakti tattva =  The vimarsa aspect, or the foundational I-consciousness of SIva; the intentness of Siva’s I-consciousness to manifest in the form of the universe; the second of the 36 tattvas.
Sakti-vikasa =  concentration of attention on the inner consciousness even when the senses are open to their respective objects.
Sakti-visranti =  Merging back into Samadhi and resting in that condition.
Samacara =  Sam-samyak; a-isat; cara-prasarana- external expansion of the property evolved prana
Samarasya =  Unison of Siva; identity of Consciousness; identical state in which all differentiation has disappeared.
Samavaya =  One of the seven categories of the Hindu Logicians. Inseparable coinherence of attributes.
samayak kuravar =  The four stalwarts samban^dhar, appar, sun^dharar, mANikka vAchakar who by their glorious hymns (which are part of thirumuRai) gave an excellent energy and vitalisation to the Shaivam in Tamil Nadu
Samadhi =  Collectedness of mind in which there is cessation of the fluctuations of the mind.
Samadhi-sukha =  The bliss that is experienced in being established in pramatr-pada i.e in the state of the essential Self or subject.
samAdi =  complete absorption of thoughts (into the Supreme Being), the final stage of aShTAnga yoga
Samana =  When the unmana sakti begins to display herself in the form of the universe with sunya and ending with earth, then descending from the highest state of Pramata (knowing Self), she is known as Samana in as much as she has started the mentation of all that is thinkable (asesa-mananamatrarupatvat samana-Udyota, p.286)
Samana =  The vital vayu that helps in the assimilation of food etc., and brings about equilibrium between prana and apana
Samapatti =  Sometimes a synonym of samadhi; consummation; attainment of psychis at-onement.
Samarasa =  One having the same feeling or consciousness.
Samaveda =  One of the four Vedas
Samavesa =  Being possessed by the Divine, absorption of the individual consciousness in the Divine.
Sambhava-pramata =  One established in Siva-Consciousness, also known as Siva-pramata
Sambhava-samavesa =  Identification with Siva without any thought-construct born out of profound insight or sambhava upaya
Sambhava = upaya Sudden emergence of Siva-Consciousness without any thought-construct (vikalpa) by a mere hint that one’s essential Self is Siva; also known as Sambhava Yoga or Icchopaya or Iccha-Yoga
Sambhu =  An epithet of Siva
samhAra =  dissolution
samhita =  1. Compilation 
2. The mantra part of the vedas
samsAraH =  circuit of worldly life
Sambodha =  Samyak bodha, full or perfect knowledge of the essential nature of Reality as a mass of consciousness and bliss which is the essential nature of Self.
Samghatta =  Meeting; mental union; concentration.
Samhara ; Samharam =  Assimilation to the Highest Consciousness ; Decay ; Reabsorption ; Resolution ; Dissolution.
Samhara krtya =  The withdrawal or reabsorption of the Universe into Siva
Samsara or samsrti =  Transmigratory existence, the world process
Samsarin =  Transmigratory being.
Samskara =  the residual traces of the mind lying in the unconscious.
Samvid-samvitti =  Consciousness; universal consciousness.
Samvit =  Supreme consciousness in which there is complete fusion of prakasa and vimarsa, jnana-sakti; svatantrya-sakti; the supreme I-consciousness.
Samvit-devata =  From the macrocosmic point of view Samvitdevatas are khecari, gocari, dikcari and bhucari. From the microcosmic point of view, the internal and external senses are said to be samvit-devata.
sAmIpam =  residing next (to Lord shiva)
Samkalpa =  resolve; the synthetic activity of thought
Samvahya =  One who is carried from one form of existence to another: karmatma, pasu
Sandhana =  Lit., joining; union, union of the individual consciousness with the universal Consciousness through fixed, intensive awareness or one-pointedness.
Sankoca =  Contraction, limitation.
Sanatana Dharma =  (Lit., Eternal Religion) The religion of the Hindus, formulated by the Rishis of the Vedas.
Sandha-bija =  The four letters- which are unable to give rise to any other letter.
Sankara =  The Doer of Good ; God ; Siva.
sAnkhya =  one of the six systems of Hindu philosophy, attributed to sage kapila, the system of philosophy that believes in two fundamental realities, viz., Purusa and Prakrti; the follower of such system.
sannyAsa =  (ascetic) practice, renunciation
Sara =  quintessence
Saiva agama =  The ten dualistic sastras, eighteen sastras which teach identity in difference, and sixty-four non-dualistic sastras expounded by Siva
Saiva yoga or Sadhana =  Anava upaya, Sakta upaya and Sambhava upaya
Sakala =  All the jivas from gods down to the mineral who rest in maya tattva. They have no knowledge of the real self and their consciousness is only that of diversity.
Saksat upaya =  Sambhava upaya
Sksatkara =  Direct intuitive experience of the essential Self.
sAlOkam =  residing in the same world (of Lord shiva)
Salokya =  The state in which the aspirant lives on the same plane with his chosen deity.
Sarguru or Satguru =  The true Teacher ; the Divine Teacher.
Sarguru Darsan =  The sight of the Divine Guru.
Sarira =  Body.
sArUpam =  having the same form (of Lord shiva)
Sarupya =  The state in which the aspirant realizes complete identity with the Divine.
Sarvaga =  omnipenetrant
Sarvakartrtva =  Omnipotence
Sarvajna =  omniscient
Sarvajnatva =  Omniscience
Sasana =  Sastra; philosophical text.
Sastha-vaktra =  Lit., the sixth organ or medhra-kanda, near the root of the rectum.
Sat =  Existence which is consciousness
Sat Chit =  Same as Sadasivam or Siva Sat. God regarded as Sat when it is not manifest to the World and as Chit whe it is manifest to the World.
Satasat =  Atma.
Satchidananda =  God when known by the Mukta ; when God appears as Love.
Satta =  existence; ultimate reality
Sattamatra =  pure existence, maha satta-transcendental reality.
Sattva =  (1) The principle of being; light and harmony, a constituent of Prakrti (2) The inner essential Self.
Satya pramata =  Para Siva
Saugata =  Follower of Buddha, a Buddhist
Sausupta Srsti =  The srsti in which pralayakalas remain
Savikalpa jnana =  Knowledge which is acquired through the judgement of Buddhi
Savikalpa samadhi =  Communion with God in which the distinction between subject and object is retained
Sayujya =  The state in which the aspirant realizes identity with the Divine in the midst of difference.
sAyujyam =  absorption (into Lord shiva)
shaiva, saiva =  related to Shiva
shaiva sidhdhantha =  The shaivite philosophy that bloomed in thamiznAdu.
shakti =  Power, The Goddess (The female part of the God)
shaktipAda, saththinipAdham =  descend of divine Grace
sharaNaru =  The set of remarkable devotees who in karnataka spread the vIra shaivam movement
shAstra =  instructional scripture
shiva =  Perfect, Auspicious, The Supreme God
shivAchArya =  priest, who shows the way to Lord shiva
shloka =  verse
shrauta =  vedic
Siddhantham =  The True End ; the Saiva Adwaitha Philosophy.
Siddhanti =  A Saiva ; a follower of the above school.
Siddhi =  Supernormal power
siddi =  attainment
Sikhanta =  Brahmarandhra
Siva =  The good; the name of the Divine in general; the foundational prakasa or divine light.
Siva (parama) =  The Absolute; the transcendent divine principle.
Sivajnana Siddhi =  The second of the 14 Siddhantha Sastras and the largest and most comprehensive work of the series.
Siva Tattva =  The first of the 36 tattvas; the primal divine light, the source of all manifestation.
Siva-Vyapti =  fusion with Siva; absorption of the universe in Siva.
smArta =  follower of smR^iti
smRiti, smruti =  remembrance, social law book
Soham =  It is I ; God is myself ; One of the Sadanas required for elevating the Soul to the Presence of God ; used also as Hamsa.
Soham bavana =  Imagining God as oneself.
Soma (symbolic) =  Prameya or object, apana
Soma nadi =  The Pingala nadi carrying apana
Sorupam =  Form.
Spanda =  Apparent motion in the motionless Siva which brings about the manifestation, maintenance and withdrawal of the universe; Svatantrya Sakti, creative pulsation.
Sphuratta =  Gleam; a throb-like gleam of the absolute Freedom of the Divine bringing about the world-process; spanda; the light of the spirit.
Srsti ; Srishti =  letting go; emanation; manifestation ; Creation ; origination.
Srsti-bija =  Mantra-bija, the Supreme I-consciousness which brings about manifestation.
Sruti =  The Vedas
Stabdha =  immovable.
sthala purANa =  history of the place/temple
sthala vR^ixa =  abode tree
Sthana-Kalpana =  A mode of anava upaya concerned with concentration of external things.
Sthiti ; Sthithi =  gross ; Development ; sustentation.
Sthiti Krtya =  Maintenance of manifestation
Sthula bhutani =  Gross elements-ether, air, fire, water and earth.
Sthula Sarira =  Gross physical body ; The body of the Soul in the waking state or Jagra avastha.
Sugata =  The Buddha
Suddha Adhva =  The course of extra-mundane manifestaion from Siva upto Suddha Vidya
Suddha tattva =  Parama Siva
Suddha Vidya =  The fifth tattva, counting from Siva. In this tattva, the consciousness of both I and This is equally prominent. Though the germinal universe is seen differently, yet identity runs through it as a thread. There is identity in diversoty at this stage. Kriyais predominent in this tattva. The consciousness of this state is ‘I am I and also this.’
Suddha Vikalpa =  The thought of one’s self being essentially Siva
Suksma or Linga Sarira =  The body of the Soul in the Swapna avastha or Dream condition ; The inner subtle body, puryastaka
Sunya =  void; the state in which no object is experienced.
Sunya (Bauddha) =  A state in which there is no distinct consciousness of knower, knowledge and known; an indefinable state of Reality.
Sunya-pramata =  The experient who is identified with objectless consciousness; pralayakala
Sunya (Saiva) =  A state in which no object is experienced.
Sunyata =  vacuity
=  absolute void
=  One who has awakened to the transcendental state of consciousness and in whom that consciousness is constantly present.
Surya (symbolic) =  Prana, pramana (knowledge)Jnana-sakti
Surya nadi =  The Ida nadi carrying prana
=  installation
=  central nADi very important in yoga
or sausuptam =  Delusive condition caused by primal ignorance.
=  Sound, dreamless sleep.
Sushupthi avastha =  State of dead sleep.
Susupti (apavedya) =  Very deep sleep in which there is complete absence of all objective consciousness.
Susupti (savedya) =  Sound sleep in which there remains a slight trace of the sense of pleasure, lightness etc.
Svacchanda =  The absolutely Free Being, Siva; Bhairava
Svacchandya =  Absolute Freedom of the Supreme
Svalaksana =  An object limited in its particular space and time.
Svaprayojanam =  Selfish end ; one’s own good.
Svasamvedana =  An intuitive apprehension of oneself without the aid of internal and extenal sense.
Svapna =  Dream; dreaming condition; vikalpas or fancies limited to particular individuals;
Svapna srsti =  The plane of existence in which the bhuvana, body and objects are subtle like dream.
Svarupa =  one’s own form; real nature; essence; essential nature
Svarupapatti =  Attaining one’s essential nature or true Self.
Svasthiti or Svastha =  staying in one’s essential state.
Svathanthryam =  A free right.
Svatma =  one’s own Self.
Svatantra =  The Absolute, of unimpedede Will
Svatantrya =  Absolute Freedom of Will; Vimarsa Sakti
Svatma-satkr =  To assimilate to oneself; to integrate to oneself
Sveccha =  Siva’s or Sakti’s own Will, synonymous with svatantrya
svAdhiShTAnam =  own base, second mystical circle (chakra)
Swapna avastha =  Dreaming state.

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